12月30日, 2021, 马歇尔火灾, 大风引发的野火席卷了路易斯维尔市, the Town of Superior and unincorporated areas of 科罗拉多州博尔德县, 燃烧6,219英亩, 摧毁近1,100个家庭和企业, 还夺走了两个人的生命. The Marshall fire is considered to be the most destructive in 科罗拉多州’s history with over $2 billion in losses.

Two of our expert teams were deployed to the incident to conduct (1) a detailed post-fire forensics investigation to determine the origin and cause of the incident, and (2) a wildfire risk assessment to evaluate building performance during the fire, 另外还要识别呼吸和范围的物理, 环境, social and regulatory vulnerabilities that contributed to the devastating losses experienced in the impacted communities.

彩宝网平台的法医专家, retained by the 博尔德县警长和地方检察官办公室, 进行证人访谈, 现场观察火灾现场和火灾模式, researched location and types of ignition sources in the area as well as applicable weather data; and reviewed photography and video of witnesses and/or automated camera 系统. The investigation gathered and considered all evidence and data, 考虑到真实性,整理出了事件时间线. We then developed a list of possible cause hypotheses of the fire and offered opinions regarding the origin and cause of the fire, 以及电力公司所扮演的角色.

用于野火缓解评估, our team of experts collected hundreds of on-the-ground observations and evaluations of damaged and undamaged homes and commercial structures, 以及对单个建筑构件的检查, 系统, 和材料. The team also conducted numerous interviews with state and local first responders, 建立官员, 计划部门, 居民, 以及其他机构, as well as evaluated numerous technical reports developed from by other partners such as NIST and IBHS.

Our research uncovered the hazardous combination of high winds known as a “Mountain Wave” with wind speeds of 50 to 60 mph with gusts up to 80 to 115 mph significantly damaging vulnerable power sources near ignitable and mixed natural vegetation. 除了, 长期的干旱, high temperatures and local resident activity unexpectedly created coincidental ignition sites in tandem.

而公用事业特定的野火安全法规, guidance and practices have been adopted in the State of California, where several utility-related wildfires have caused catastrophic losses, the development and adoption of similar standards and practices has not yet occurred more broadly at a national or international level.

类似的, 对于建筑环境, 野火/WUI安全规范和标准, guidance documents and programs already exist at the national level (e.g., IWUI code, NFPA 1140) and at some state and local levels (e.g., 加州建筑法规(第7A章), 然而,收养, 这些代码和标准的定制和执行, 政策和实践是有限的.

超越规范和标准, the incident highlighted the need for more holistic approaches to wildfire resiliency – the need for actions to be taken at community, 社区, 细分, parcel and building scales that encompass the disaster life cycle: preparedness, 规划, 响应, 缓解, 和恢复.

除了, utilizing structure density and fire separation to limit urban conflagration, 执行小尺度危害, 风险和脆弱性评估和绘图, 协调多种灾害的缓解措施, and adding better vegetation management policies and practices for wildland spaces, 公共休憩用地, greenbelts and integrated recreational areas are all areas that show opportunities for improvement for this incident.

The results of this investigation and 缓解 assessment are now used to inform improvements to building/fire codes and standards, 最佳实践, guidance documents and other policies on wildfire preparedness, 预防, 缓解, 恢复和重建. Through the Building Science Disaster Support program (BSDS) of the Federal 应急管理 Agency (FEMA), the observations and recommendations from the incident have resulted in the development of several 缓解 assessment team (MAT) products such as:

  • Recommendations to improve codes and standards, guidance documents and programs.
  • Recommendations for code adoption, customization, and enforcement.
  • 为房主提供详细的情况说明, builders and design professionals addressing structural hardening, 防御空间, 多种灾害方面的考虑, 细分规划, 细节和接缝, 烟灰渗透.
  • 培训和外联演讲和讲习班.
  • 马歇尔消防技术报告.

Our wildfire risk 缓解 team continues to work with our STARR II partners, 联邦应急管理局和其他联邦/州/地方政府, 非营利组织, 和私营部门客户更好地了解, 为......准备, 应对并从未来的野火威胁中恢复, 尤其是在荒地和城市交界的地方. 这包括提供社区野火保护计划, 公用事业野火缓解计划, 社区外展, education and training for enhanced wildfire resiliency 规划 and implementation for planners, 工程师, 设计师, 建筑商和广大公众.













Post-fire lessons-learned used for future wildfire loss 预防




目前在读博士研究生,野火恢复与科学, MS:灾害风险管理 & 适应气候变化; 消防工程硕士 硕士,结构工程, 学士,土木工程, 体育:钙、 事故指挥系统101及700; 社区紧急应变小组(CERT), NFPA结构着火潜力评估项目; 加州环境质量法案(CEQA)


本科,电气工程, BS,森林资源管理; 注册体育:钙、 HI, ID, NV, OR, TX, MT, AK, 注册消防调查员 注册火灾及爆炸调查员 持牌私家侦探 精炼厂培训计划


电气工程学士学位; 注册PE: AZ, MN, WA, 危险废物操作和应急响应,OSHA, 注册火灾和爆炸调查员(CFEI); 注册车辆火灾调查员


本科,机械工程, 硕士,机械工程, 博士,机械工程, 成员